Skip to product information
1 of 2

Paul Kim

Veins of the thoracic wall (English)

Veins of the thoracic wall (English)

The venous drainage of the thoracic wall is accommodated by intercostal veins that accompany the intercostal arteries. Anteriorly, there are nine anterior intercostal veins that drain into the musculophrenic/internal thoracic veins. On the lateroposterior aspect, there are eleven posterior intercostal veins and the subcostal vein. Most of the posterior intercostal veins drain directly into the azygos venous system (right 4th-11th ➝ azygos vein, left 4th-7th ➝ accessory azygos vein, left 8th-11th ➝ hemiazygos vein). The uppermost, supreme intercostal vein on either side drains directly into the ipsilateral brachiocephalic vein. Additionally, the 2nd and 3rd posterior intercostal veins merge to form a superior intercostal vein on each side. The left superior intercostal vein goes on to drain into the left brachiocephalic vein, while the right one drains into the azygos vein.
  • Science

    License for academic purposes such as theses, research publishing and the scientific discourse

  • Education

    License for educational purposes, live teaching, presentations, handouts and exam papers

  • Commerce

    License for commercial purposes, editorial use, broadcast and video, website and social media

  • Please visit our License page to find out which license is best for you.
  • The extended usage unlocks additional ways to use our illustrations. Check the license terms for more info.

Regular price $7.56 USD
Regular price Sale price $7.56 USD
Sale Sold out
View full details
Content type
File size
247.03 KB
2 MP