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Paul Kim

Olfactory nerve (olfactory organ and bulb) (Latin)

Olfactory nerve (olfactory organ and bulb) (Latin)

Microscopic view of the organum olfactorium (pars olfactoria tunicae mucosae nasi) and neural pathways of the bulbus olfactorius. The epithelium olfactorium contains olfactory sensory neurons (epitheliocytus neurosensorius olfactorius that are wedged between supporting and basal epithelial cells (epitheliocytus sustenans/basalis). The peripheral processes (dendrites) of each neuron bears bulbi dendritici (sometimes known as vesiculae olfactoriae), with cilia protruding above the epithelial surface which react to odiferous stimuli dissolved with the nasal mucus. The central processes (axons) collect into fila olfactoria that pass through the lamina cribrosa and project into the bulbus olfactorius. Underlying the epithelium olfactorium is the lamina propria which contains glandulae olfactoriae (glandulae Bowmani) that span the epithelium olfactorium and secrete mucus. The bulbus olfactorius contains about 2000 glomeruli olfactorii formed bysynapses between terminal ends of the fila olfactoria and the primary dendrites of projection neurons (neura projectiones), known as mitral and tufted cells (neuron mitrale/plumosum). Periglomerular cells (neuron periglomerulare), involved in odor discrimation, are also present. The projection neurons in turn project their axons (afferent fibers) posteriorly/caudally to form the tractus olfactorius. Additionally, the bulbus olfactorius contains [amacrine] granular cells (neuron granulare) which receive efferent fibers from central brain areas (as well as other mitral/tufted cells) and modulates the afferent signals of the mitral/tufted cells.
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