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Paul Kim

Maxillary nerve (English)

Maxillary nerve (English)

Just before the maxillary nerve exits the middle cranial fossa, via the foramen rotundum, it gives off a small meningeal branch which carries sensory impulses from the dura mater of this region. Within the pterygopalatine fossa, the maxillary nerve gives off a number of branches that can be divided into those which arise directly from the nerve and those associated with the pterygopalatine ganglion which is located on the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa (see next image). The maxillary nerve leaves the pterygopalatine fossa by coursing forward through the pterygomaxillary fissure to enter the infratemporal fossa, where it gives off the posterior superior alveolar nerve. It then turns medially to enter the orbit via the inferior orbital fissure, where it continues as the terminal branch of the maxillary nerve, the infraorbital nerve. The infraorbital nerve proceeds anteriorly across the floor of the orbit in the infraorbital groove, giving off the middle superior alveolar nerve, before continuing through the infraorbital canal. Here, the anterior superior alveolar nerve arises before the infraorbital nerve continues onto the face and terminates as groups of palpebral, nasal and superior labial branches.
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