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Yousun Koh

Inferior base of the skull - Foramina, fissures, and canals - Colored (Latin)

Inferior base of the skull - Foramina, fissures, and canals - Colored (Latin)

The most prominent feature from this perspective is the foramen magnum of the os occipitale, which gives passage to the medulla spinalis from the truncus encephali. Notable foramina which give passage to nervi craniales include the foramen rotundum (n. maxillaris (CN V2)), foramen ovale (n. mandibularis (CN V3), foramen jugulare (nn. glossopharyngeus, vagus et accessorius (CN IX-XI), v. jugularis interna) and the canalis hypoglossus (n. hypoglossus (CN XII).Anterior to the foramen jugulare, the canalis carotidis which gives passage to the a. carotis interna can be seen. The foramen spinosum transmits the a./v. meningea media, while the fissura orbitalis inferior gives passage to several structures including the n./a. infraorbitalis, n. zygomaticus and a branch of the v. ophthalmica inferior.
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