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Yousun Koh

Inferior base of the skull - Foramina, fissures, and canals - Colored (English)

Inferior base of the skull - Foramina, fissures, and canals - Colored (English)

The most prominent feature from this perspective is the foramen magnum of the occipital bone, which gives passage to the spinal cord from the brainstem. Notable foramina which give passage to cranial nerves include the foramen rotundum (maxillary nerve (CN V2)), foramen ovale (mandibular nerve (CN V3), jugular foramen (glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves (CN IX-XI), internal jugular vein) and the hypoglossal canal (hypoglossal nerve (CN XII).Anterior to the jugular foramen, the carotid canal which gives passage to the internal carotid artery can be seen. The foramen spinosum transmits the middle meningeal artery and vein, while the inferior orbital fissure gives passage to several structures including the infraorbital nerve and artery, zygomatic nerve and a branch of the inferior ophthalmic vein.
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