This illustration shows a horizontal section of the encephalon (at the level of the cornu temporale ventriculi lateralis). Part of the hemispherium cerebri has been removed in order to reveal the deeper subcortical structures and mainly the thalamus and the surrounding structures. Being located near the center of the encephalon, the thalamus forms several important relations with the surrounding structures. It comprises the superior and lateral walls of the ventriculus tertius, while its dorsal surface comprises the portion of the floor of the ventriculus lateralis. The dorsal and caudal surfaces of the thalamus are closely related to the hippocampus and fornix that extend from the cornu temporale ventriculi lateralis to the corpora mammilaria. Laterally, the thalamus limits the crus posterior capsulae internae. The medial surfaces of the bilateral thalami are interconnected medially via adhesio interthalamica. The overall appearance of the thalamus may seem smooth with the exception of two protuberances on the caudoventral surface. These are the corpus geniculatum laterale et mediale, which are responsible for the processing of auditory and visual sensory inputs, respectively.
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